# Bioinformatics Zen

## Introduction

// Mon July 9 2012

I wrote a blog post four years ago called 'organised bioinformatics experiments' describing my methods for maintaining computational projects. This approach used databases to manage data and the Ruby equivalent of GNU Make for organising in-silico analysis steps. I used this approach for several years after describing it, and several people have generously said that this post influenced the way they worked.

In the last few months I have been influenced by an excellent talk on computational complexity by Rich Hickey. This talk lead me to spend some time further thinking about how I construct my computational workflows. This has since lead me to move away from my 'organised bioinformatics experiments' approach and change the way I work.

In this and subsequent posts I'm going to deconstruct my previous approach and then outline what I think is a simpler approach for organising research workflows. Given the inspiration I received from Rich Hickey's talk I've named this series of posts "decomplected computational workflows."

## Reproducibility and Organisation

If you have done computational research for any length of time you know there is an underlying problem of organising the files and steps in a workflow. An example of this problem is writing a Perl script at the start of your PhD and then remembering what this script does several years later as you finish your thesis. How do you effectively organise hundreds of files and scripts over the months or years of a research project?

Wet lab scientists track all of their experiments in a lab notebook. This produces a record of the steps taken in their research that allows someone else to reproduce their experiments. There is a similar requirement in computational research but there is no simple in-silico analogy to a laboratory notebook. How do I effectively reproduce my research from a set of scripts I may not have looked at for a month? How do I organise all my scripts, data, and output figures in the project? I think this question contains two parts:

• Reproducibility:

A research project maps input data into a tractable format, runs analyses on these data, then generates a set of output figures and statistics. The difficulty in making a project reproducible is that all scripts must be run in the correct order. Furthermore if the code in an earlier step changes then all subsequent downstream steps must be rerun. This process is fragile and can lead to errors and omissions.

• Organisation:

Research projects starting with an inkling of idea can rapidly grow into large numbers of scripts. How can these large numbers of related files be assembled in a project? How should data, figures and images be labelled? A well organised project should be able to be returned to after several months and the components understood with little effort.

## Complected bioinformatics experiments

In my previous description of organised bioinformatics experiments I aimed to address these problems using a systematic approach:

• Databases: All data should be entered into a database at the start of a project. This keeps the data in a consistently accessible format. Denormalisation of data makes integrating data from different sources easier.

• Object Relational Management: Object relational mapping (ORM) encapsulates database tables as object classes and table records are instances of these classes. The data in the project should only be available to analysis steps via these Ruby ORM classes. This makes accessing the data easier than SQL statements and all data-related code is in the same location.

• Rake: Rake is a build tool similar to GNU Make written in Ruby. In a research project each step should be defined as a Rake task. Parts of the project are divided into incrementally numbered sub directories based on their order in the project. This means all analytic code is found in Rakefiles and provides a consistent organisation.

You can find an example project organised this way on github. I think this approach satisfies both of the requirements I outlined above. The analyses are strictly organised into Rakefiles enforcing the requirement for the project steps being called in the correct order. Secondly the project is well organised as the data is kept in the database, access is only through Ruby ORM classes, and all the analysis logic is in the Rakefiles. Nevertheless I found over time there are some downsides to this approach, and that they originate from complexity.

• Tied to a specific programming language: Everything must be written in Ruby. This makes it harder to include different programming languages. This can be worked around by calling secondary scripts using the shell from inside the Rakefile. Maintaining different shell scripts however adds complexity because the analysis has now moved out of the Rakefile into separate locations.

• All data in a database: Database joins can be used to create composite data sets from different sources more easily. Using a database unconditionally for all data however adds complexity in the extra layer of code required to manage and manipulate the data. Furthermore the data is effectively hidden. To see and get a feel for it you'll need to use a database viewer and SQL.

• Mutable project state: Changing files or database tables in different project steps adds mutability to a project. What state is the project in at any given time? If you create a database table in one step add an additional column in a later step, then current state of the table must be tracked, adding complexity.

The 'organised bioinformatics approach' makes reproducing and organising a project easier. I however think it does not make it simpler. Using Rakefiles makes it easy to run rake to repeat all project analyses but adds what I think is a great deal of complexity. This complexity is manifest as the project becoming increasing hard to maintain as it grows. Feeling a sense of resistance when trying to change or update a workflow step is a sign of complexity. Therefore this has lead me to think that in addition to reproducibility and organisation, computational workflows have an additional requirement:

• Simplicity:

Computational analysis pipelines should be simple to maintain. This simplicity should make be manifest as making it trivial to add, update, or remove steps in the workflow.

In the Rich Hickey's talk, he argues is that we should prefer simple over easy, as adding large catch-all tools to a project can make analysis easier but can lead to increasing complexity and maintenance. Choosing simpler or less tools, in contrast, may require more effort to create a project but makes maintenance simpler in the longer term. Rich uses the term "complecting" to describe how braiding more and more software into the project results in greater and greater complexity. Therefore with respect to this I going to describe the following series of posts as "Decomplected Computational Workflows." These posts will described how I use Makefiles, language agnostic functions, immutable data, and modularised projects to reduce the complexity in my computational research.